Abstract in Russian and English – a brief description of the purpose, content, form, form and other features of the article. The abstract should reflect the main and valuable, in the author’s opinion, stages, objects and conclusions of the study. The recommended volume of the annotation is from 150 to 200 words. According to the annotation to the article, the reader should determine whether to refer to the full text of the article for more detailed information. Abstract is the main source of information in domestic and foreign information systems and databases indexing the journal.

Annotation is indexed by network search engines. Abstract in Russian is the basis for preparing an abstract in English. Abstract in English is included in the English-language information block about the article, which is downloaded to platforms of foreign reference databases and analytical systems (such as EBSCO, Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory, etc.).

It should be borne in mind that the annotations in English are for foreign scientists and specialists the main source of information on the content of the article and the results of research presented therein. Foreign experts on the annotation evaluate the publication, determine their interest in the work of a Russian scientist, can use it in their publication and make a link to it, open a discussion with the author, request a full text, etc. Abstract in English should not be a literal translation from an annotation in Russian: it should be written in literate English.

The structure of the annotation repeats the structure of the article and includes the introduction, goals and objectives, methods, results, conclusions (conclusions). However, the subject, theme, purpose of the work is indicated in the event that they are not clear from the title of the article. The method or methodology of the work should be described if they are new or interesting from the point of view of this work. The results of the work are described extremely accurately and informatively. The main theoretical and experimental results are presented, the revealed interrelations and regularities. At the same time, preference is given to new results and long-term data, important discoveries, conclusions that refute existing theories, as well as to data that, in the author’s opinion, are of practical importance. Conclusions can be accompanied by recommendations, estimates, suggestions, hypotheses, described in the article.